Text - "Human Action" Ludvig von Mises
In colloquial speech we call a man "happy" who has succeeded in attaining his ends. A more adequate description of his state would be that he is happier than he was before. There is however no valid objection to a usage that defines human action as the striving for happiness. But we must avoid current misunderstandings. The ultimate goal of human action is always the satisfaction of the acting man's desire. There is no standard of greater or lesser satisfaction other than individual judgments of value, different for various people and for the same people at various times. What makes a man feel uneasy and less uneasy is established by him from the standard of his own will and judgment, from his personal and subjective valuation. Nobody is in a position to decree what should make a fellow man happier. To establish this fact does not refer in any way to the antitheses of egoism and altruism, of materialism and idealism, of individualism and collectivism, of atheism and religion. There are people whose only aim is to improve the condition of their own ego. There are other people with whom awareness of the troubles of their fellow men causes as much uneasiness as or even more uneasiness than their own wants. There are people who desire nothing else than the satisfaction of their appetites for sexual intercourse, food, drinks, fine homes, and other material things. But other men care more for the satisfactions commonly called "higher" and "ideal." There are individuals eager to adjust their actions to the requirements of social cooperation; there are, on the other hand, refractory people who defy the rules of social life. There are people for whom the ultimate goal of the earthly pilgrimage is the preparation for a life of bliss. There are other people who do not believe in the teachings of any religion and do not allow their actions to be influenced by them. Praxeology is indifferent to the ultimate goals of action. Its findings are valid for all kinds of action irrespective of the ends aimed at. It is a science of means, not of ends. It applies the term happiness in a purely formal sense. In the praxeological terminology the proposition: man's unique aim is to attain happiness, is tautological. It does not imply any statement about the state of affairs from which man expects happiness. The idea that the incentive of human activity is always some uneasiness and its aim always to remove such uneasiness as far as possible, that is, to make the acting men feel happier, is the essence of the teachings of Eudaemonism and Hedonism. Epicurean "arapacia" is that state of perfect happiness and contentment at which all human activity aims without ever wholly attaining it. In the face of the grandeur of this cognition it is of little avail only that many representatives of this philosophy failed to recognize the purely formal character of the notions pain and pleasure and gave them a material and carnal meaning. The theological, mystical, and other schools of a heteronomous ethic did not shake the core of Epicureanism because they could not raise any other objection than its neglect of the "higher" and "nobler" pleasures. It is true that the writings of many earlier champions of Eudaemonism, Hedonism, and Utilitarianism are in some points open to misinterpretation. But the language of modern philosophers and still more that of the modern economists is so precise and straightforward that no misinterpretation can possibly occur.
next lessonTask Single lesson Lessons group 1000 most popular words Back to test
the best way to learn touch typing is to use AgileFingers! *sample text Start typing Start typing. Good luck! Touch the keyboard and start typing Press any key on your own keyboard, and then start typing the text Welcome to AgileFingers! This is your last attempt for this task! Set your goal Choose a lesson Choose a text Choose or upload a text Choose a task Congratulations! Your score meets your current goal. Too slow! Your current goal is Too inaccurate! Minimum accuracy is Goal achieved!!! , but first sign in and your scores will be saved! Options are stored in your browser, not on your user's account. Every constructive feedback is a great gift! Choose a text for correction Ah, what a fine day for Science!! Invalid e-mail You are not signed in practice Error saving data Use your own, not the virtual keyboard for typing. Random words Text words per minute characters per minute WPM CPM chart hide Lesson Task Single lesson Lessons group Text s m h Touch typing lessons - learn to type faster - AgileFingers Type much faster without looking at your keyboard. This top free online touch typing course will help you to increase your speed and accuracy." Decide how fast you want to type - AgileFingers When learning to type faster it is important to set a goal. Try to achieve it. If you achieve the goal, set a higher one. Touch typing lessons - AgileFingers You can type faster. Each of your finger type in a different speed. Each finger is responsible for clicking a particular area of your keyboard. Practice fast typing on full texts - AgileFingers Pick a full text for practicing fast typing. Touch typing test - AgileFingers Test if you type as fast as you think you do. If you don't, don't worry. Just practice more with AgileFingeres, eventually you will achieve your goal. Test task Touch typing test - task: Your opinion about AgileFingers Share your thoughts about AgileFingers. We can surely make this course better. Let's work together on that Lesson Fast typing exercise: My own text - AgileFingers Sample text - AgileFingers Correct a text for a better typing experience in AgileFingers Typing exercise Fast touch typing exercise Learn touch typing by playing games - AgileFingers Learning touch typing is not the most pleasurable thing to do, but AgileFingers makes it more interesting. Learn to type faster by playing a game! Sheep Rescue - touch typing game - AgileFingers Learn touch typing by playing "Sheep Rescue" - game that teaches how to type faster and more accurately. Press the correct key and get points for your bravery. Star Words - touch typing game - AgileFingers Master touch typing by playing "Star Words" - game that will make you type much faster. This game is a part of AgileFingers course. User profile - AgileFingers User profile for AgileFingers Log in / register - AgileFingers Authentication for AgileFingers Settings - AgileFingers Settings for AgileFingers - touch typing online tutor Teach your students how to type faster - AgileFingers Zone for teachers who wish to improve typing skills of their students. You can start a lesson in classroom or assign your students. Observe how they type faster and faster. Student zone for those who wish to learn touch typing - AgileFingers Take touch typing classes. Your teacher will guide you in touch typing matters. index middle ring little all fingers row Lesson: fingers inner Random words Random words & numbers Most common words numbers homework classroom work One more go Try again edit English Text should not be empty